Types of clinical study designs – literature reviews – gsu library research guides at georgia state university
A way of combining data from many different research studies. Database gui A meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the findings from individual studies. Data recovery technician Example: Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions: meta-analysis findings. Database engine tuning advisor Conn V. Data recovery rates Nurs Res. Database developer salary 2010 May-Jun;59(3):224-31.
A summary of the clinical literature.
Database backup and recovery A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular clinical issue. Yale b database The researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria. Sybase database A systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. Database design The systematic review may also include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis. Database 3 normal forms Example: Complementary and alternative medicine use among women with breast cancer: a systematic review. Database for dummies Wanchai A, Armer JM, Stewart BR. A database is a collection of Clin J Oncol Nurs. Library database 2010 Aug;14(4):E45-55.
A controlled clinical trial that randomly (by chance) assigns participants to two or more groups. Database node There are various methods to randomize study participants to their groups. Data recovery after format Example: Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial. Database 2015 Barrett B, et al. Data recovery nyc Ann Fam Med. Database weekly 2012 Jul-Aug;10(4):337-46.
A clinical research study in which people who presently have a certain condition or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group of people who are not affected by the condition. Data recovery utah Example: Smokeless tobacco cessation in South Asian communities: a multi-centre prospective cohort study. Data recovery deleted files Croucher R, et al. Database health check Addiction. R studio data recovery software 2012 Dec;107 Suppl 2:45-52.
Case-control studies begin with the outcomes and do not follow people over time. Data recovery iphone Researchers choose people with a particular result (the cases) and interview the groups or check their records to ascertain what different experiences they had. Ease use data recovery They compare the odds of having an experience with the outcome to the odds of having an experience without the outcome. Free database software Example: Non-use of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case-control study. Raid 0 data recovery software Persaud N, et al. Mail database CMAJ. Hdata recovery master 2012 Nov 20;184(17):E921-3.
The observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval. In database Exposure and outcome are determined simultaneously. Drupal 7 database query Example: Fasting might not be necessary before lipid screening: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Data recovery usa Steiner MJ, et al. Data recovery business Pediatrics. Database visualization 2011 Sep;128(3):463-70.
A report on a series of patients with an outcome of interest. Data recovery qatar No control group is involved. Data recovery no root Example: Students mentoring students in a service-learning clinical supervision experience: an educational case report. Database keywords Lattanzi JB, et al. Normalization in database Phys Ther. Database 3nf 2011 Oct;91(10):1513-24.
Put forth by experts in the field. Database server Example: Health and health care for the 21st century: for all the people. Data recovery wd passport Koop CE. Relational database management system Am J Public Health. Database generator 2006 Dec;96(12):2090-2.
Studies conducted using animal subjects. Database 3nf example Example: Intranasal leptin reduces appetite and induces weight loss in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Data recovery hard drive software Schulz C, Paulus K, Jöhren O, Lehnert H. Iphone 4 data recovery Endocrinology. Database logo 2012 Jan;153(1):143-53.
Adapted from Study Designs. Moto g data recovery In NICHSR Introduction to Health Services Research: a Self-Study Course. Database analyst salary http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/ihcm/06studies/studies03.html and Glossary of EBM Terms. Data recovery engineer http://www.cebm.utoronto.ca/glossary/index.htm#top
Bias – Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Gt m database Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. In databases information is organized in There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Case Control Studies – Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. Data recovery tools iphone The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Causality – The relating of causes to the effects they produce. A database driver is software that lets the Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. 7 data recovery suite key Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Control Groups – Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. Data recovery linux They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
Controlled Clinical Trials – Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. Database modeling tools The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. G info database search Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. Database administrator salary When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as Randomized Controlled Trials.
Cost-Benefit Analysis – A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). Database triggers The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. Data recovery recuva This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Data recovery texas Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Cross-Over Studies – Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. Database resume In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. Data recovery external hard drive mac A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given.
Cross-Sectional Studies – Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. Database management systems This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Double-Blind Method – A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Empirical Research – The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
Genome-Wide Association Study – An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole genome representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Intention to Treat Analysis – Strategy for the analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.
Logistic Models – Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. 7 data recovery review A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual’s risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Lost to Follow-Up – Study subjects in cohort studies whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.
Matched-Pair Analysis – A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
Meta-Analysis – Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. Mode s database It is often an overview of clinical trials. Windows 8 data recovery It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.
Numbers Needed To Treat – Number of patients who need to be treated in order to prevent one additional bad outcome. Java 8 database It is the inverse of Absolute Risk Reduction.
Odds Ratio – The ratio of two odds. Database tools The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. Drupal 7 database api The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. Raid 6 data recovery The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Patient Selection – Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Predictive Value of Tests – In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Database architecture Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Prospective Studies – Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Qualitative Studies – Research that derives data from observation, interviews, or verbal interactions and focuses on the meanings and interpretations of the participants.
Random Allocation – A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. Iphone 4 data recovery software It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Randomized Controlled Trial – Clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Reproducibility of Results – The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. Database java The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Retrospective Studies – Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. Data recovery android The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.