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To kill or not to kill: it’s the toughest decision the Florida Keys Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (FKSPCA) has to make. The two shelters in Marathon and Key West admit about 2,000 animals a year and, unfortunately, not every one can be saved.

The decision to terminate an animal’s life is a complex and arduous task, one that the FKSPCA is completely transparent about. There is the assumption that the agency is a “kill-free shelter,” which the FKSPCA dispels on its website. Kill-free shelters are often limited admission, meaning they only accept animals with a better chance of adoptability, thus spiking their success rate. The FKSPCA is open admission, meaning they take all animals no matter what physical or mental condition. But with that comes the responsibility and hard choices of what is the most humane outcome for an animal that is not treatable.

The benchmark for a kill-free shelter, according to Best Friends Animal Society, is a roughly 90 percent live release rate. FKSPCA records indicate they mostly achieve this standard. For example, in March of 2018 the FKSPCA successfully rehabilitated 88 percent of the animals and 87 percent in April.

“We cannot guarantee the animal can be rehabilitated and it is our responsibility not to place animals in homes without reasonable assurance everyone is safe,” said Jeff Johnson, FKSPCA president-elect. “We have to work with all animals; no matter how big the problem or tough the solution, we can’t ignore it.”

The FKSPCA uses a national database called Pet Point which compiles euthanasia statistics, and those numbers are then sent to Monroe County, which oversees the agency’s contract and animal control in general. According to shelter records from February 2016 to February 2018, there were 844 animals euthanized. Using Pet Point’s classifications, many of those euthanizations are grouped under the vague “policy decision” category and include such animals as iguanas, rats, raccoons, bufo toads — essentially invasive animals. Of the 844, more than 300 animals were euthanized for medical reasons, 171 were requested by owners and about 50 were for irreversible behavioral disorders.

“We make every attempt to help an animal, we look at the history of their behaviors and keep them at the shelter to evaluate and observe. On the records it shows when we took the animal in to when we decided to euthanize and that it can be quite a long time,” said Fox. It should be noted the shelter spent over $100,000 in animal medical expenses last year treating illnesses in order to make every effort at rehabilitation.

Shelter officials said it is a group decision to euthanize. Any staff member who has come in contact with the animal is a part of the agreement and veterinarians are involved for medical decisions. “It’s never one person making the decision,” said Fox.

By far, cats create the most consistent challenge for the shelter. The Keys have many outdoor, free-roaming cat communities located near homes and businesses. Many of these are feral cats which often breed and create cat communities and should not be confused with furry, purry Mr. Skittles next door.

“Some cats are just truly wild, aggressive and antisocial. Some business owners and residents consider these cats to be invasive and destructive,” said Fox. The rehabilitation success rate is low and just putting them in a room at the shelter can cause mental, emotional and physical stress leading to suffering, not to mention fighting among the cats, according to Matt Royer, the Key West shelter’s director of operations. Fox and Royer, both experienced in animal training and welfare, maintain it’s difficult to domesticate a feral cat and, again, it would go against the responsibility of the shelter to have potentially dangerous animals up for adoption. Another misconception of the statistics is kitten euthanasia, said Fox, which most likely occurs due to fading kitten syndrome, in which young cats simply have no medical chance.

“We encourage trap, neuter and release allowing the cats to live in their colonies without being able to breed,” said Fox “But we can’t just trap, neuter and release them onto the streets without being under the care of someone managing the colony. And under county ordinance, we can’t release them without property owner consent.” However, they will adopt a feral cat or community cats to an individual expressing interest in having a “working” cat on their property, as was the case recently at a local restaurant wishing to have working cats to keep pests at bay.

FKSPCA will be creating new programs and classes with Alley Cat Allies to work with the public to find better solutions to the community cat problems. Visit for more information and look for the new shelter opening up this summer.