The relational data model and relational database constraints. – ppt download

Slide 5- 2 Chapter Outline Relational Model Concepts Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations

Slide 5- 3 Relational Model Concepts The relational Model of Data is based on the concept of a Relation The strength of the relational approach to data management comes from the formal foundation provided by the theory of relations We review the essentials of the formal relational model in this chapter In practice, there is a standard model based on SQL Note: There are several important differences between the formal model and the practical model, as we shall see

Slide 5- 4 Relational Model Concepts A Relation is a mathematical concept based on the ideas of sets The model was first proposed by Dr. Data recovery ios E.F. Database data types Codd of IBM Research in 1970 in the following paper: “A Relational Model for Large Shared Data Banks,” Communications of the ACM, June 1970 The above paper caused a major revolution in the field of database management and earned Dr. Data recovery johannesburg Codd the coveted ACM Turing Award

Slide 5- 5 Informal Definitions Informally, a relation looks like a table of values. Iphone 5 data recovery software A relation typically contains a set of rows. Database operations The data elements in each row represent certain facts that correspond to a real-world entity or relationship In the formal model, rows are called tuples Each column has a column header that gives an indication of the meaning of the data items in that column In the formal model, the column header is called an attribute name (or just attribute)

Slide 5- 7 Informal Definitions Key of a Relation: Each row has a value of a data item (or set of items) that uniquely identifies that row in the table Called the key In the STUDENT table, SSN is the key Sometimes row-ids or sequential numbers are assigned as keys to identify the rows in a table Called artificial key or surrogate key

Slide 5- 8 Formal Definitions – Schema The Schema (or description) of a Relation: Denoted by R(A1, A2,…..An) R is the name of the relation The attributes of the relation are A1, A2,…, An Example: CUSTOMER (Cust-id, Cust-name, Address, Phone#) CUSTOMER is the relation name Defined over the four attributes: Cust-id, Cust-name, Address, Phone# Each attribute has a domain or a set of valid values. Database index For example, the domain of Cust-id is 6 digit numbers.

Slide 5- 9 Formal Definitions – Tuple A tuple is an ordered set of values (enclosed in angled brackets ‘ ’) Each value is derived from an appropriate domain. Database crud A row in the CUSTOMER relation is a 4-tuple and would consist of four values, for example: This is called a 4-tuple as it has 4 values A tuple (row) in the CUSTOMER relation.


Drupal 8 database A relation is a set of such tuples (rows)

Slide Formal Definitions – Domain A domain has a logical definition: Example: “USA_phone_numbers” are the set of 10 digit phone numbers valid in the U.S. Data recovery disk A domain also has a data-type or a format defined for it. Database 3 tier architecture The USA_phone_numbers may have a format: (ddd)ddd-dddd where each d is a decimal digit. Data recovery orlando Dates have various formats such as year, month, date formatted as yyyy-mm-dd, or as dd mm,yyyy etc. Database cardinality The attribute name designates the role played by a domain in a relation: Used to interpret the meaning of the data elements corresponding to that attribute Example: The domain Date may be used to define two attributes named “Invoice-date” and “Payment-date” with different meanings

Slide Formal Definitions – State The relation state is a subset of the Cartesian product of the domains of its attributes each domain contains the set of all possible values the attribute can take. Database unit testing Example: attribute Cust-name is defined over the domain of character strings of maximum length 25 dom(Cust-name) is varchar(25) The role these strings play in the CUSTOMER relation is that of the name of a customer.

Slide Formal Definitions – Summary Formally, Given R(A1, A2, , An) r(R)  dom (A1) X dom (A2) X….X dom(An) R(A1, A2, …, An) is the schema of the relation R is the name of the relation A1, A2, …, An are the attributes of the relation r(R): a specific state (or “value” or “population”) of relation R – this is a set of tuples (rows) r(R) = {t1, t2, …, tn} where each ti is an n-tuple ti = where each vj element-of dom(Aj)

Slide Formal Definitions – Example Let R(A1, A2) be a relation schema: Let dom(A1) = {0,1} Let dom(A2) = {a,b,c} Then: dom(A1) X dom(A2) is all possible combinations: {,,,,, } The relation state r(R)  dom(A1) X dom(A2) For example: r(R) could be {,, } this is one possible state (or “population” or “extension”) r of the relation R, defined over A1 and A2. I data recovery software free download It has three 2-tuples:,,

Slide Definition Summary Informal TermsFormal Terms TableRelation Column HeaderAttribute All possible Column Values Domain RowTuple Table DefinitionSchema of a Relation Populated TableState of the Relation

Slide Characteristics Of Relations Ordering of tuples in a relation r(R): The tuples are not considered to be ordered, even though they appear to be in the tabular form. O review database Ordering of attributes in a relation schema R (and of values within each tuple): We will consider the attributes in R(A1, A2,…, An) and the values in t= to be ordered. Database in recovery (However, a more general alternative definition of relation does not require this ordering).

Slide Characteristics Of Relations Values in a tuple: All values are considered atomic (indivisible). Data recovery wizard professional Each value in a tuple must be from the domain of the attribute for that column If tuple t = is a tuple (row) in the relation state r of R(A1, A2, …, An) Then each vi must be a value from dom(Ai) A special null value is used to represent values that are unknown or inapplicable to certain tuples.

Slide Characteristics Of Relations Notation: We refer to component values of a tuple t by: t[Ai] or t.Ai This is the value vi of attribute Ai for tuple t Similarly, t[Au, Av,…, Aw] refers to the subtuple of t containing the values of attributes Au, Av,…, Aw, respectively in t

Slide Relational Integrity Constraints Constraints are conditions that must hold on all valid relation states. Data recovery open source There are three main types of constraints in the relational model: Key constraints Entity integrity constraints Referential integrity constraints Another implicit constraint is the domain constraint Every value in a tuple must be from the domain of its attribute (or it could be null, if allowed for that attribute)

Slide Key Constraints Superkey of R: Is a set of attributes SK of R with the following condition: No two tuples in any valid relation state r(R) will have the same value for SK That is, for any distinct tuples t1 and t2 in r(R), t1[SK]  t2[SK] This condition must hold in any valid state r(R) Key of R: A “minimal” superkey That is, a key is a superkey K such that removal of any attribute from K results in a set of attributes that is not a superkey (does not possess the superkey uniqueness property)

Slide Key Constraints (continued) Example: Consider the CAR relation schema: CAR(State, Reg#, SerialNo, Make, Model, Year) CAR has two keys: Key1 = {State, Reg#} Key2 = {SerialNo} Both are also superkeys of CAR {SerialNo, Make} is a superkey but not a key. Gif database In general: Any key is a superkey (but not vice versa) Any set of attributes that includes a key is a superkey A minimal superkey is also a key

Slide Key Constraints (continued) If a relation has several candidate keys, one is chosen arbitrarily to be the primary key. Data recovery lifehacker The primary key attributes are underlined. Top 10 data recovery software 2014 Example: Consider the CAR relation schema: CAR(State, Reg#, SerialNo, Make, Model, Year) We chose SerialNo as the primary key The primary key value is used to uniquely identify each tuple in a relation Provides the tuple identity Also used to reference the tuple from another tuple General rule: Choose as primary key the smallest of the candidate keys (in terms of size) Not always applicable – choice is sometimes subjective

Slide Relational Database Schema Relational Database Schema: A set S of relation schemas that belong to the same database. Database gale S is the name of the whole database schema S = {R1, R2,…, Rn} R1, R2, …, Rn are the names of the individual relation schemas within the database S Following slide shows a COMPANY database schema with 6 relation schemas

Slide Entity Integrity Entity Integrity: The primary key attributes PK of each relation schema R in S cannot have null values in any tuple of r(R). Database life cycle This is because primary key values are used to identify the individual tuples. Data recovery dallas t[PK]  null for any tuple t in r(R) If PK has several attributes, null is not allowed in any of these attributes Note: Other attributes of R may be constrained to disallow null values, even though they are not members of the primary key.

Slide Referential Integrity A constraint involving two relations The previous constraints involve a single relation. Data recovery usb Used to specify a relationship among tuples in two relations: The referencing relation and the referenced relation.

Slide Referential Integrity Tuples in the referencing relation R1 have attributes FK (called foreign key attributes) that reference the primary key attributes PK of the referenced relation R2. Database 4th normal form A tuple t1 in R1 is said to reference a tuple t2 in R2 if t1[FK] = t2[PK]. V database in oracle A referential integrity constraint can be displayed in a relational database schema as a directed arc from R1.FK to R2.

Slide Referential Integrity (or foreign key) Constraint Statement of the constraint The value in the foreign key column (or columns) FK of the referencing relation R1 can be either: (1) a value of an existing primary key value of a corresponding primary key PK in the referenced relation R2, or (2) a null. Data recovery tampa In case (2), the FK in R1 should not be a part of its own primary key.

Slide Displaying a relational database schema and its constraints Each relation schema can be displayed as a row of attribute names The name of the relation is written above the attribute names The primary key attribute (or attributes) will be underlined A foreign key (referential integrity) constraints is displayed as a directed arc (arrow) from the foreign key attributes to the referenced table Can also point the primary key of the referenced relation for clarity Next slide shows the COMPANY relational schema diagram

Slide Other Types of Constraints Semantic Integrity Constraints: based on application semantics and cannot be expressed by the model per se Example: “the max. R studio data recovery with crack no. Database uses of hours per employee for all projects he or she works on is 56 hrs per week” A constraint specification language may have to be used to express these SQL-99 allows triggers and ASSERTIONS to express for some of these

Slide Populated database state Each relation will have many tuples in its current relation state The relational database state is a union of all the individual relation states Whenever the database is changed, a new state arises Basic operations for changing the database: INSERT a new tuple in a relation DELETE an existing tuple from a relation MODIFY an attribute of an existing tuple Next slide shows an example state for the COMPANY database

Slide Update Operations on Relations INSERT a tuple. Database history DELETE a tuple. Database b tree MODIFY a tuple. Database optimization Integrity constraints should not be violated by the update operations. Data recovery software reviews Several update operations may have to be grouped together. Cnet data recovery Updates may propagate to cause other updates automatically. Database systems This may be necessary to maintain integrity constraints.

Slide Update Operations on Relations In case of integrity violation, several actions can be taken: Cancel the operation that causes the violation (RESTRICT or REJECT option) Perform the operation but inform the user of the violation Trigger additional updates so the violation is corrected (CASCADE option, SET NULL option) Execute a user-specified error-correction routine

Slide Possible violations for each operation INSERT may violate any of the constraints: Domain constraint: if one of the attribute values provided for the new tuple is not of the specified attribute domain Key constraint: if the value of a key attribute in the new tuple already exists in another tuple in the relation Referential integrity: if a foreign key value in the new tuple references a primary key value that does not exist in the referenced relation Entity integrity: if the primary key value is null in the new tuple

Slide Possible violations for each operation DELETE may violate only referential integrity: If the primary key value of the tuple being deleted is referenced from other tuples in the database Can be remedied by several actions: RESTRICT, CASCADE, SET NULL RESTRICT option: reject the deletion CASCADE option: propagate the new primary key value into the foreign keys of the referencing tuples SET NULL option: set the foreign keys of the referencing tuples to NULL One of the above options must be specified during database design for each foreign key constraint

Slide Possible violations for each operation UPDATE may violate domain constraint and NOT NULL constraint on an attribute being modified Any of the other constraints may also be violated, depending on the attribute being updated: Updating the primary key (PK): Similar to a DELETE followed by an INSERT Need to specify similar options to DELETE Updating a foreign key (FK): May violate referential integrity Updating an ordinary attribute (neither PK nor FK): Can only violate domain constraints

Slide Summary Presented Relational Model Concepts Definitions Characteristics of relations Discussed Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas Domain constraints’ Key constraints Entity integrity Referential integrity Described the Relational Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations

Slide In-Class Exercise (Taken from Exercise 5.15) Consider the following relations for a database that keeps track of student enrollment in courses and the books adopted for each course: STUDENT(SSN, Name, Major, Bdate) COURSE(Course#, Cname, Dept) ENROLL(SSN, Course#, Quarter, Grade) BOOK_ADOPTION(Course#, Quarter, Book_ISBN) TEXT(Book_ISBN, Book_Title, Publisher, Author) Draw a relational schema diagram specifying the foreign keys for this schema.

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