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This page presents the Relational Approach to Syntax which is a programme I’ve been developing for several years. Data recovery app I’ve listed the papers I’ve written but I’ve also taken the opportunity to explain each one briefly so that readers get a sense of how they fit together rather than reading them as isolated texts.

The Relational Approach to Syntax (Normalization grammar) is a minimalist model of syntax where basic Narrow Syntactic operations are driven by a process known as Normalization of relations (De Vos 2008).

R database connection These are not merely postulates that were invented by me (Mark de Vos); rather, they are “real” insofar as they were independently theorized as universal constraints on how relations can be represented. Database weak entity Normalization can be seen as a set of constraints on information structure that can either drive syntactic derivations or constrain syntactic representations (depending on one’s perspective). Data recovery vancouver This means that Normal Forms can be construed as LF interface conditions which determine the nature of syntactic computation.

What the Relational Approach/Normalization Grammar does is ask the question: if we assume that these constraints exist, then (a) what kind of syntactic theory do they give rise to (what are the properties of the resulting system) and (b) does that system bear any resemblance to the syntactic systems exhibited in natural language? The answers to these questions are quite interesting. Level 3 data recovery The resultant system is similar in many ways to Minimalism and I’d accordingly call it radically minimalist. Database blob Furthermore, it makes interesting predictions about natural language too. Database examples Getting started

The standard Y/T-model of Minimalist syntax is illustrated below. Database knowledge One starts with a numeration; narrow syntax builds representations through Merge, Move and Agree. H2 database The resulting representation is sent to LF and PF for interpretation.

In a Relational/Normalization system, we ask a fundamental question: what is narrow syntax actually? What derives its basic operations of Merge, Move and Agree (in other words, we need to go beyond the argument of conceptual necessity). Nexus 5 data recovery The tentative answer is that narrow syntax is simply a way of representing relations between features in well-formed ways. Data recovery uk “Well-formed” must mean with respect to the interfaces.

But what do we mean by “well-formed” precisely? To answer this, the Relational/Normalization approach draws on Relational Theory for a mathematically precise set of answers to this question. Database collation Relations are constrained by constraints known as “Normal Forms”. Database yugioh By implication, the role of syntax is to create representations that are well-formed with respect to these. Top 10 data recovery software free This means that we can adjust the Y/T-model and give specific content to what we mean by “Narrow Syntax”. Data recovery vancouver bc ‌

• Functional dependency (subsuming AGREE and SUBCAT): Most syntactic relations are construed as Functional Dependencies and, as such, are subject to Normalization.

• PF output conditions: Although these do not strictly follow from Normalization (since in a T/Y model LF and PF do not interact directly) (a) if Narrow Syntax computes over Functional Dependencies and passes (Normalized) dependencies to the LF interface, (b) then it is a reasonable hypothesis that Narrow Syntax also passes the same representations (i.e. 7 data recovery suite crack Normalized relations) to the PF interface. Database normalization definition PF output conditions might include something like: normalized relations are mapped to linear precedence i.e. Data recovery wizard a normalized relation of the form (A,B) is mapped to A >> B.

• Normalization grammar achieves a radical simplification of the syntactic apparatus. Data recovery video All Narrow Syntax does is to (a) create a numeration with SETMERGE, and (b) Normalize the relations contained in it.

• Since “coindexation” (or using pointers) is inherent in Normalization, the fact of Binding is expected (although Principles A,B and C require further explanation).

• To the extent that this model is successful it supports the Strong Minimalist Hypothesis that the interfaces (specifically the CI interface) determines core properties of grammar

• it provides incremental locii for natural selection to operate and thus, pending future research, could possibly provide a rationale for the evolution of language.

Papers on the Relational approach to Syntax: Basic Syntax and how it developed in the species The basic tenets of a normalization-driven syntax are explained in the following paper. Database query example If we adopt a restrictive but precise view of syntactic relations (Merge/Agree) as partial orders then we can ask a question: what kinds of structures can be represented and what might be the restrictions on these? I adopt the constraints imposed by the Relational Model (from Database theory) because these are well worked out, mathematically precise and apply universally to relational models. Database migration I then demonstrate how these constraints derive important Minimalist syntactic architecture (e.g. Data recovery free (binary) Merge, chain formation etc.) and simplify these (e.g. Database vs spreadsheet It is not necessary to have both Binary Merge and Set (n-ary) Merge). Database name sql The result is a radically minimalist framework where the nature of the interface output conditions (made concrete in terms of Normal Forms) determine the nature of Narrow Syntax — thus supporting the Strong Minimalist Hypothesis.

• De Vos, M. Database management 2008. Data recovery miami Deriving Narrow Syntax through constraints on information structure: a parallel between linguistic models of displacement and database theory. H2 database viewer Lingua 118 (2008) 1864–1899. Database replication [Accepted Authors Manuscript version De Vos 2008 Lingua Web Version] [DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2008.05.002].

Visualizing normalization: Here is a link to a PowerPoint presentation which provides a graphic explanation of the concepts explained in the Lingua (2008) paper.

• E. Database record F. Data recovery certification Codd: A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Database programs Commun. Raid 1 data recovery ACM 13(6): 377-387 (1970) and also here: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=358007

The normalization approach to syntax is developed in a paper on evolution of language. Database 2016 If we adopt the idea that the structures of natural language are constrained by universally applicable Normal Forms, then that also allows us to ask and answer questions about language evolution e.g. Key value database given the cognitive ability to normalize a relational structure to a certain level (e.g. Database mirroring NF2), what are the structures that such a being might be able to compute? This provides us a with a “pathway” for how language might have evolved and the model makes precise predictions about the types of constructions available to a being at each point along the way. Data recovery techniques The paper argues that the ability to store a large lexicon was a locus of evolutionary selection — mechanisms of organizing that knowledge yield increased fitness. Data recovery using linux The paper then argues that the same mechanisms that allow organization of lexical knowledge can also be exapted for organization of syntactic knowledge. Data recovery apple The ability to compute natural language syntax thus grows in parallel with the ability to organize a mental lexicon.

• De Vos, M. Data recovery google store (2014) “The evolutionary origins of syntax: optimization of the mental lexicon yields syntax for free”. Database works Lingua (150): 25–44. Data recovery cheap (DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2014.07.005) (Free download from Lingua until 12 October 2014: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1PaLy5YrUT0Qw)

In the following papers, I explore a different aspect of syntactic relations, namely how they might be linearized. Database of state incentives for renewables and efficiency This area is related but logically separate to the work on normalization (it is possible to pursue a linearization approach without adopting the idea that syntax is really all about Normalization of relations. Data recovery usb stick The basic premise explored in all these papers is the idea that linearization of syntactic structure is a function of the syntactic relations present within that structure. Database companies Crucially, the morphology plays an important role in realizing the various options available to a language.

The following papers all represent my early work on linearization of syntactic relations. Database application The paper on expletives shows how EPP effects can be derived from linearization considerations alone without having to stipulate that subjects must raise to SpecTP. Database online As such, it resolves an important syntactic puzzle and simplifies the ontology of syntactic categories. Database high availability The basic insight is that features in a single chain may be spelled out in different positions if the morphology of the language. Database utility In languages with “there”-type expletives, it is argued that “there” is an overt realization of pure phi features. Data recovery zagreb The fact that it must be spelled out “high” is a function of the Agreement relationships which those features enter into.

The paper on Afrikaans adpositions looks at doubling phenomena among Afrikaans adpositions (also visible in German and Dutch). Database javascript Similarly to the EPP paper, the paper argues that doubling and postpositions occur when the morphology spells out two distinct points of a chain. Database administrator jobs It does so because of the need to linearize the syntactic relationships between the adposition and the DP.

• De Vos, M. Data recovery for iphone 2009. Data recovery victoria bc Expletives on the interface: Linearization and PF output conditions. 10k database Presentation at the Leiden University Wednesday Syntax Meeting 24 June 2009. Data recovery software mac [Draft manuscript]

• De Vos, M. Cost of data recovery from hard drive 2009. S cerevisiae database Afrikaans mixed adposition orders as a PF-linearization effect: Disharmony is asuperficial side effect of deeper harmony. Snl database Presentation at the Theoretical Approaches to Disharmonic Word Orders Conference, Newcastle University, May 30th-June 1st 2009. Database 4500 [Draft manuscript De Vos 2009 Afrikaans Adpositions]

The paper about the spec-head asymmetry explores the relationships between heads and specifiers. Data recovery miami fl The SPIL paper is a development of an earlier paper in Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistic. Data recovery sd card The papers are similar in some ways but the later paper includes some additional insights. Uottawa database These papers attempt to show how English word order can be accomodated within the relational approach to linearization. Top 10 data recovery software free download In particular, it focusses on the relationships between specifiers and heads and shows (surprisingly) that the evidence that specifiers precede heads is not very clear in English. Database query optimization It is argued that it is possible (under certain circumstances) for a head to precede its specifier — even if that would result in a “crossing tree” which is impermissible with traditional syntactic trees (within the approach adopted here, a syntactic tree need not have a “crossing” node — but it’s linearization can). Qmobile data recovery The papers also attempt to explore how a locality condition on spelling out of relations might work.

The poster about Hollmberg’s Generaliztion/Object Shift is a development of this work on specifiers. No 1 data recovery software I am able to demonstrate how the shifted and non-shifted constructions are merely equally optimal outputs of the linearization of the same underlying syntactic structure. Data recovery iphone free In particular, there is no need for object movement in the underlying syntax i.e. Database 11g object shift is a PF effect.

• De Vos, M. Data recovery thumb drive (2014) “The Spec-Head vs Head-Spec asymmetry: post-syntactic linearization and the embedded-topicalization paradox”. Data recovery hardware tools Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 43 pp81–117. Os x data recovery DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5774/43-0-146 (Available from the SPIL website: http://spil.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/146/181).

• De Vos, M. R studio data recovery download 2012 Heads and specifiers: on spec-head word orders in English. Data recovery western digital In Zwart, J-W (Ed), Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistik, pp 53–78.

• De Vos, M. Top 5 data recovery software (2016). Data recovery mac Deriving Holmberg’s Generalization . Database website Poster Presentation at the 31st Comparative Germanic Syntax Workshop from 1–3 December 2016 in Stellenbosch.

The following paper examines head movement and its role in syntax. Data recovery denver Head-movement has sometimes been considered to be a bit odd in the typology of movement types. Data recovery galaxy s4 This paper demonstrates a surprising but important conclusion: head movement makes computation of linearization easier. R studio data recovery free full version With the relational linearization approach, it is immediately apparent that (a) although the assumptions are reasonable and simple, (b) linearization is far from a simple process. Data recovery equipment In particular, a given syntactic structure could be linearized in a number of different ways — but only a few of them are “optimal” (there is a clear similarity with Optimality Theory — although within the Relational approach, the constraint set is trivial). Database primary key What this paper shows is that head movement (bundling of features) serves to simplify the linearization options considerably. Database link oracle In other words, far from being an “imperfection”, Head Movement plays an integral role in the linearization process. 7 data recovery key The paper also demonstrates how the head movement constraint can be derived from relational considerations: representations which respect the HMC are more easily linearized than those that do not.

• De Vos, M. Database manager salary (2014) “Head movement is an artefact of optimal solutions to linearisation paradoxes”. Database processing SPIL Plus (44):23–48. Database xcode (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5842/44-0-640).

• There are many online tutorials providing basic introductions to database normalization. Database administrator salary Here are a few to get you started, but there are many out there if you do a google search.