Proteomic characterization of differential abundant proteins accumulated between lower and upper epidermises of fleshy scales in onion (allium cepa l.) bulbs

The onion ( Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. Database life cycle The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. Data recovery dallas The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. Data recovery usb The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. Database 4th normal form LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. V database in oracle In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. Data recovery tampa We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. R studio data recovery with crack These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Database uses Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Database history Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. Database b tree In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. Database optimization The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. Data recovery software reviews This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. Citation: Wu S, Ning F, Wu X, Wang W (2016) Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion ( Allium cepa L.) Bulbs. Cnet data recovery PLoS ONE 11(12): Copyright: © 2016 Wu et al. Database systems This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: We acknowledge the financial support of the Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in University of Henan Province (grant no. Data recovery for mac 15IRTSTHN015) ( Data recovery damaged hard drive The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The onion ( Allium cepa L.) is a member of the Liliaceae family and is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop, with fleshy scales that form bulbs as the main edible parts. Database builder The onion bulb has a unique flavor and a long storage period. Data recovery cnet It contains important dietary flavonoids and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides and has many activities that are beneficial to human health, e.g., anticancer properties, and antiplatelet, antithrombotic and anti-asthmatic activities [ 1]. Database log horizon Global onion production increased from 52.65 million tons in 2003 to 85.79 million tons in 2013; In 2013, China’s onion production reached 22.34 million tons and ranked first place worldwide (FAO). Data recovery raid Currently, onions are the second most-grown vegetable in the world after tomatoes. The scales of an onion bulb are modified leaves. Database design for mere mortals The edges of the scales bond together around the bud and finally form the bulb. Database hardening Due to the polarity of the leaf primordia during differentiation and development, onion scales also show dorsoventrality. Data recovery linux distro Each scale consists of an upper epidermis (UE), an intermediate parenchyma tissue (mesophyll), and a lower epidermis (LE). Data recovery key The epidermis of onion scales forms a boundary between the plant and the external environment. Data recovery macbook It serves different functions, such as protecting against water loss, regulating gas exchange, secreting metabolic compounds, and absorbing water and mineral nutrients. Previous studies showed that cell differentiation capacity and maintenance of differentiated phenotypes (e.g., stomata and trichome cells) in plant epidermis were regulated through the coordination of multiple genes (e.g., defective kernel 1, homeodomain-leucine zipper, Arabidopsis thaliana meristem 1, protodermal factor 2) [ 2– 5]. Data recovery los angeles However, the differentiation mechanisim between LE and UE in onion has largely unclear. Both LE and UE in onion are simple tissues, consisting of one layer of closely-associated cells that play a mechanical, protective role. Database yml UE is colorless, transparent and easily peels off, whereas LE is yellow, red or white in color, due to flavonoid compounds (e.g., quercetin, anthocyanin) [ 6, 7]. Database in excel Onion bulbs are categorized as yellow, red (purple), and white based on the color of their scales. G info database In yellow and red onions, quercetin is the most abundant flavonoid [ 7]. Database book Anthocyanins represent approximately 10% of the total flavonoids, with cyanine derivatives as the major anthocyanins among at least 25 different compounds [ 6, 8]. LE and UE display obvious differences in cell differentiation and pigment synthesis. Q prime database Unique microscopic structures and physiological functions make the epidermis of onion scales a commonly used experimental material in botany and molecular biology. Top 10 data recovery tools The epidermis of onion scales has been used in biosensors [ 9], transient transformation (detecting protein subcellular localization) [ 10], cellular and subcellular metabolite analysis [ 11], and growth anisotropy [ 12]. Data recovery laptop However, the associated proteomic differences between LE and UE are unclear. Data recovery flash drive The onion epidermis is a suitable material to carry out single-layer-cell proteomic analysis. Although onion genome sequencing has not been reported and the number of identified proteins in the onion is limited in databases, the increasing numbers of available expressed sequence tag (EST) databases and the high homology of the onion to the lily genome allow the successful identification of proteins, as shown by a recent research study [ 13]. Data recovery cost The present study compared the proteomic differences between LE and UE in yellow and red onion scales using 2-DE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry (MS), revealing a number of the differential accumulated proteins involved in pigment synthesis, stress response and cell division in the onion epidermis. Data recovery galaxy s5 Our results provided new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. Database key field This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. (A, B) The difference in color and spectra of pigment extracts of the LE between red and yellow onions. Data recovery nashville (C, D) Acid/base titration changed the color and spectra of LE pigment extracts from yellow onion scales. Data recovery minneapolis (E, F) Acid/base titration changed the color and spectra of LE pigment extracts from red onion scales. The absorbance spectra of onion LE extracts were characteristic of two major peaks at 255 nm and 363 nm for red onion, and 253 nm and 360 nm for yellow onion ( Fig 3B). Database 4 net The two peaks possibly corresponded to quercetin, which has a typical absorbance peak at 255 nm and 370 nm [ 21]. Iphone 6 data recovery software free A previous study determined that quercetin is the main f
lavonoid in two onion scales [ 7], and trace amounts of another flavonoid, anthocyanin, were also found in red onions [ 6]. It has been reported that pH affected the absorption peaks of quercetin and anthocyanin [ 21]. Database usa reviews Thus, the spectra of LE pigment extracts were scanned after acid/base titration. Easeus data recovery 94fbr At pH < 7, the light yellow of yellow onion extract became colorless; at pH >7, the color of the extract became dark yellow ( Fig 3C). Database join At pH < 7, the light purple of red onion extract became red; at pH >7, the color of the red onion extract became yellow ( Fig 3E). H2 database download At pH < 7, red onion extract had an additional absorption peak at 520 nm ( Fig 3F), which was identified as anthocyanin. H2 database url However, there was no 520 nm peak in yellow onion extract at pH < 7 ( Fig 3D). Data recovery boot disk Moreover, there were no obvious absorption peaks in pigment extracts of the UE from both red and yellow onions between 200–900 nm (results not shown). 990 database Our results showed that quercetin was abundant in the LE of red and yellow onion scales while anthocyanin was found in LE of red onion scales. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that two pigment synthesis-related proteins, chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI) (spots 28 and 43) and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like (OMT1, spot 17), differentially accumulated between LE and UE ( Table 3). Data recovery hard drive cost CHI plays a part in the middle step of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway by catalyzing the converse of chalcone into naringenin [ 22]. Data recovery knoxville We checked the gene expression of CHI and found that it was up-regulated in LE compared with UE, especially in red onions ( Fig 4), which was consistent with the abundance of this protein. 7 data recovery keygen The color difference between UE and LE and between red and yellow onions can be attributed to the differential accumulation of CHI, which increases flavonoid synthesis and the downstream production of quercetin and anthocyanin. H2 database client OMT1, methylates 3’-OH residues in flavonoid compounds, such as quercetin, result in the formation of methoxy derivatives. Dayz database Due to the effect of O-methylation on the solubility of flavonoids [ 23], highly abundant OMT1 in LE of red onions may contribute to the transformation of the tone of the onion by changing the solubility of flavonoids.