Dendrochronological dating of the world trade center ship, lower manhattan, new york city (pdf download available)

On July 2010, archaeologists monitoring excavation at the World Trade Center site (WTC) in Lower Manhattan found the remains of a portion of a ship’s hull. Database developer salary Because the date of construction and origin of the timbers were unknown, samples from different parts of the ship were taken for dendrochronological dating and provenancing. Data recovery agent After developing a 280-year long floating chronology from 19 samples of the white oak group (Quercus section Leucobalanus), we used 21 oak chronologies from the eastern United States to evaluate absolute dating and provenance. Data recovery usb flash drive Our results showed the highest agreement between the WTC ship chronology and two chronologies from Philadelphia (r = 0.36; t = 6.4; p < 0.001; n = 280) and eastern Pennsylvania (r = 0.35; t = 6.3; p < 0.001; n = 280). Data recovery windows The last ring dates of the seven best-preserved samples suggest trees for the ship were felled in 1773 CE or soon after. Database definition Our analyses suggest that all the oak timbers used to build the ship most likely originated from the same location within the Philadelphia region, which supports the hypothesis independently drawn from idiosyncratic aspects of the vessel's construction, that the ship was the product of a small shipyard. Data recovery definition Few late-18th Century ships have been found and there is little historical documentation of how vessels of this period were constructed. Database or database Therefore, the ship's construction date of 1773 is important in confirming that the hull encountered at the World Trade Center represents a rare and valuable piece of American shipbuilding history.

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The temporal variability of the forest sink is associated with high uncertainties in both its magnitude and the driving ecological and climatic processes.

Data recovery software windows In this study, we assess the inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon uptake using annually resolved aboveground biomass increment (ABI) estimates from 272 pseudorandomly sampled trees at a long-term monitoring plot in the dry valley of the Valais in Switzerland. Cost of data recovery Over the 1950–2011 period, the mean ABI is 86.8 g C m−2 year−1 with an IAV of ±31 %. Database first entity framework The IAV is largely driven by hydrological conditions throughout the water year from previous August to current August (r SPEI = 0.56; 1st differenced r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Data recovery iphone 5 During extremely dry years (such as 1972, 1976, 1998, and 2011), the carbon accumulation was reduced up to 63 % from the long-term mean. Raid 0 data recovery Furthermore, our analysis explores possible biases of annual ABI derived from manual band dendrometers in permanent plot inventories caused by water status related changes in tree size. 7 data recovery serial key During the