Are babies wired to understand the world from birth_ – the atlantic

But Saxe wanted to understand how babies see the world when they’re awake; she wanted to image Arthur’s brain as he looked at video clips, the kind of thing that adult research subjects do easily. Data recovery lifehacker It was a way of approaching an even bigger question: Do babies’ brains work like miniature versions of adult brains, or are they completely different? “I had this fundamental question about how brains develop, and I had a baby with a developing brain,” she said. Top 10 data recovery software 2014 “Two of the things that were most important to me in life temporarily had this very intense convergence inside an MRI machine.”

Saxe spent her maternity leave hanging out with Arthur in the machine.

Database gale “Some of those days, he didn’t feel like it, or he fell asleep, or he was fussy, or he pooped,” she said. Database life cycle “Getting good data from a baby’s brain is a very rare occurrence.” Between sessions, Saxe and her colleagues pored over their data, tweaking their experiments, searching for a pattern in Arthur’s brain activity. Data recovery dallas When they got their first usable result when he was 4 months old, she said, “I was through the roof.”

A recent paper published in Nature Communications is the culmination of more than two years of work to image brain activity in Arthur and eight other babies. Data recovery usb In it, her team finds some surprising similarities in how the babies’ and adults’ brains respond to visual information, as well as some intriguing differences. Database 4th normal form The study is a first step in what Saxe hopes will become a broader effort to understand the earliest beginnings of the mind.

Functional MRI is perhaps the most powerful tool scientists have to study brain activity short of opening up the skull. V database in oracle It relies on changes in blood flow in areas of the brain that are more active than others, which creates a detectable signal in an MRI machine. Data recovery tampa The technique has generated some criticism, as it’s an indirect measure of brain activity, and the simple, striking images it produces rely on behind-the-scenes statistical manipulation. R studio data recovery with crack Nevertheless, fMRI has opened up entirely new avenues of research by giving scientists what Saxe calls “a moving map of the human brain.” It has revealed, in incredible detail, how different parts of the brain choreograph their activity depending on what a person is doing, perceiving or thinking.

Some areas of the cortex also seem to be purpose-specific. Database uses Nancy Kanwisher, a neuroscientist at MIT and Saxe’s former adviser, is known for discovering an area called the fusiform face area, which responds to images of faces more than any other visual input. Database history Her lab also led the discovery of the parahippocampal place area, which preferentially responds to scenes depicting places. Database b tree When she was a graduate student in Kanwisher’s lab, Saxe discovered an area of the brain that was devoted to “theory of mind”—thinking about what other people are thinking. Database optimization Since then, research by several labs has identified regions of the brain involved in social judgments and decision-making.

The team’s goal is to collect about 10 minutes of data from each baby while she’s motionlessly watching the videos. Data recovery software reviews To achieve that, the researchers often need to average together data from multiple two-hour sessions. Cnet data recovery “The more times a baby comes, the more likely we are to get that full 10 minutes,” Kosakowski said. Database systems This is Riley’s eighth visit.

When Herrera signals that Riley has stopped napping, Kosakowski initiates the scanner and cues a series of video clips, as babies are more likely to look at moving images than still ones. Data recovery for mac After a while, Herrera closes her hand, signaling that Riley’s eyes are closed again. Data recovery damaged hard drive “Sometimes I think babies must be getting their best naps here,” Kosakowski said with a laugh.

Studying infants has always required creative techniques. Database builder “It’s been an interesting problem,” said Charles Nelson, a cognitive neuroscientist at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital who studies child development, “because you’re dealing with a nonverbal, rhetorically limited, attentionally limited organism, trying to figure out what’s going on inside their head.” Similar techniques are often used to study babies and nonhuman primates, or children with disabilities who are not verbal. Data recovery cnet “We have a class of covert measures that allows us to peek inside the monkey, the baby, the child with a disorder,” Nelson said.

The simplest is watching their behavior and noting where they look, either by observing them or using eye-tracking technologies. Database log horizon Another is to measure brain activity. Data recovery raid Electroencephalography (EEG), for instance, simply requires attaching an adorable skullcap of electrodes and wires to a baby’s head to detect fluctuating brain waves. Database design for mere mortals And a newer technique called near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sends light through babies’ thin, soft skulls to detect changes in blood flow in the brain.

Both methods reveal how brain activity changes moment to moment, but NIRS only reaches the outer layers of the brain, and EEG can’t show exactly which brain areas are active. Database hardening “To study the detailed spatial organization, and to get to deeper brain regions, you have to go to fMRI,” said Ben Deen, first author of the Nature Communications study, who’s now a researcher at Rockefeller University.

Using other methods, researchers have found hints that babies respond differently to visual inputs of different categories, particularly faces. Data recovery linux distro Faces “are a very salient part of environment,” said Michelle de Haan, a developmental neuroscientist at University College London. Data recovery key In the first few weeks of life, an infant’s eyes focus best on objects around the distance of a nursing mother’s face. Data recovery macbook Some researchers believe babies may have an innate mechanism, deep in the brain, which directs their eyes to look at faces.

There’s evidence that young infants will look longer at faces than other things. Data recovery los angeles A baby’s response to faces also becomes more specialized over time and with experience. Database yml For instance, adults have a harder time discriminating between two faces when they’re upside down, but babies under 4 months of age don’t have this bias—they can discriminate between two upside-down faces as easily as two right-side-up ones. Database in excel After about 4 months, though, they acquire a bias for right-side-up faces. G info database Around 6 months of age, infants who see faces produce an EEG signature of activity that is similar to that of adults who see faces. Database book Infant brains appear to distinguish between faces and natural scenes. Q prime database The regions of the infant brain that respond to faces or scenes, respectively, match those of adult brains. Top 10 data recovery tools The work reveals that at 4 to 6 months of age, the infant brain is already organized in a similar way to an adult brain.

But while this research suggests that babies might have some specialization in their brain for certain categories like faces, Deen said, “we knew very little about the detail of where those signals are coming from.”

For their current paper, Saxe and her colleagues obtained data from nine of the 17 babies they scanned. Data recovery laptop Though the lab is increasingly relying on outside families recruited into studies, it helped that they had a spate of “lab babies” to start with, including Arthur; Saxe’s second son, Percy; her sister’s son; and a postdoc’s son. Data recovery flash drive They presented babies with movies of faces, natural scenes, human bodies and objects—toys, in this case—as well as scrambled scenes, in which parts of the image are jumbled. Data recovery cost Saxe said they focused on faces versus scenes because the two stimuli create a sharp difference in adult brains, evoking activity in very different regions.

Surprisingly, they found a similar pattern in babies. Data recovery galaxy s5 “Every region that we knew about in adults [with] a preference for faces or scenes has that same preference in babies 4 to 6 months old,” Saxe said. Database key field That shows that the cortex “is already starting to have a bias in its function,” she said, rather than being totally undifferentiated.

Are babies born with this ability? “We can’t strictly say that anything is innate,” Deen said. Data recovery nashville “We can say it develops very early.” And Saxe points out that the responses extended beyond the visual cortex (the structures of the brain responsible for directly processing visual inputs). Data recovery minneapolis The researchers also found differences in the frontal cortex, an area of the brain involved in emotions, values and self-representation. Database 4 net “To see frontal cortex engagement in a baby is really exciting,” she said. Iphone 6 data recovery software free “It’s thought to be one of the last spots to fully develop.”

However, while Saxe’s team found that similar areas of the brain were active in babies and adults, they did not find evidence that infants have areas specialized for one particular input, like faces or scenes, over all others. Database usa reviews Nelson, who was not involved in the study, said it suggests that infant brains are “more multipurpose,” he said. Easeus data recovery 94fbr “That points out a fundamental difference in the infant brain versus the adult brain.”

It’s surprising that babies’ brains behave like adults’ brains at all considering how different they look. Database join On a computer screen outside the MRI room at MIT, I can see anatomical images of Riley’s brain that were taken while she napped. H2 database download Compared to MRI scans of adult brains, in which different brain structures are clearly visible, Riley’s brain seems creepily dark.

“It looks like this is just a really poor image, doesn’t it?” Kosakowski said. H2 database url She explains that babies at this stage have not yet fully developed the fatty insulation around nerve fibers, called myelin, that makes up the brain’s white matter. Data recovery boot disk The corpus callosum, a yoke of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain, is only dimly visible.

At this age, a baby’s brain is expanding—the cerebral cortex swells by 88 percent in the first year of life. 990 database Its cells are also reorganizing themselves and rapidly forming new connections to one another, many of which will get winnowed back throughout childhood and adolescence. Data recovery hard drive cost At this stage, the brain is astonishingly flexible: When babies have strokes or seizures that require having an entire hemisphere of the brain surgically removed, they recover remarkably well. Data recovery knoxville But there are also limits to this flexibility; babies who experience deprivation or abuse may have lifelong learning deficits.

Studying how healthy human brains develop can help scientists understand why this process sometimes goes awry. 7 data recovery keygen It’s known, for instance, that many children and adults with autism have difficulties with social cognition tasks, such as interpreting faces. H2 database client Are these differences present at the earliest stages of the brain’s development, or do they emerge out of a child’s experience, driven by a lack of attention to faces and social cues?

We’re only beginning to understand how babies’ brains are organized; it will require many more hours collecting data from a larger number of babies to have a fuller picture of how their brains work. Dayz database But Saxe and her colleagues have shown that such a study can be done, which opens up new areas of investigation. I phone data recovery “It is possible to get good fMRI data in awake babies—if you are extremely patient,” Saxe said. Database 3d “Now let’s try to figure out what we can learn from it.”

The people were so cheerful and happy to be with one another, forgetting the cold and enjoying what often seemed less like a protest and more like a block party. Yorku database There were families there, with grandmas in wheelchairs and babies in strollers. O o data recovery They were ecstatic and in disbelief at the number of people. Data recovery illustrator The Washington Post reported that the organizers put the attendance at up to half a million. Database management software They had hoped for less than half that.

It was surreal how similar this all felt, and my Russian friends on social media confirmed it: “Totally Bolotnaya,” one of them wrote. Database normalization example Bolotnaya is the square in the center of Moscow, right across the river from the Kremlin, where on December 10, 2011 around 50,000 people came out to protest fraudulent parliamentary elections. Database virtualization They had expected 3,000 and were stunned by their success. Data recovery machine It was cold and gray that day, too, and the feeling of being in that joyous crowd was unforgettable, which is why I remembered it so vividly today. Data recovery cell phone It is the giddiness of watching people vent their political frustrations with a sense of humor and good cheer, and the euphoria of observing people discover that they are not alone, that there are thousands and thousands of people just like them.

On Friday, hundreds of thousands of people made their way to downtown Washington, D.C., to celebrate the inauguration of Donald Trump. Data recovery wizard free The next day, thousands more will make the same journey for the Women’s March on Washington.

Crowd counters rely on a few methods. Pokemon x database For the inauguration, they will likely use a single aerial photo of the crowd, captured by a helicopter or satellite. Data recovery chicago Experts will augment their knowledge of how many people can fit into a space with some “head-counting”—literally, going person by person.

This is how the estimate for the 2008 inauguration was reached. R studio data recovery full version Stephen Doig, a professor at Arizona State University, consulted a satellite image released by the company DigitalGlobe and concluded that about 1.1 million people had watched the ceremonies from the National Mall. Database wiki But the D.C. Data recovery freeware government, working off the same satellite image and the reports of federal and municipals employees, arrived at a much larger figure: 1.8 million.