Arctic sea ice news and analysis _ sea ice data updated daily with one-day lag

Figure 1. Database business rules Arctic sea ice extent for December 2016 was 12.10 million square kilometers (4.67 million square miles). Iphone 5 data recovery The magenta line shows the 1981 to 2010 median extent for that month. Database implementation The black cross indicates the geographic North Pole. Raid 1 data recovery software Sea Ice Index data. Seagate data recovery About the data

Arctic sea ice extent for December 2016 averaged 12.10 million square kilometers (4.67 million square miles), the second lowest December extent in the satellite record. Database report This is 20,000 square kilometers (7,700 square miles) above December 2010, the lowest December extent, and 1.03 million square kilometers (397,700 square miles) below the December 1981 to 2010 long-term average.

The rate of ice growth for December was 90,000 square kilometers (34,700 square miles) per day. Data recovery specialist This is faster than the long-term average of 64,100 square kilometers (24,700 square miles) per day. Data recovery iphone 6 As a result, extent for December was not as far below average as was the case in November. Ice growth for December occurred primarily within the Chukchi Sea, Kara Sea, and Hudson Bay—areas that experienced a late seasonal freeze-up. Database building Compared to the record low for the month set in 2010, sea ice for December 2016 was less extensive in the Kara, Barents, and East Greenland Seas, and more extensive in Baffin and Hudson Bays. Data recovery top 10 Conditions in context

Figure 2b. Database hosting This plot shows air temperature difference from average for December 2016.

Data recovery best Air temperatures at the 925 hPa level (approximately 2,500 feet above sea level) were more than 3 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) above the 1981 to 2010 average over the central Arctic Ocean and northern Barents Sea, and as much as 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit) above average over the Chukchi Sea.

Air temperatures at the 925 hPa level (approximately 2,500 feet above sea level) were more than 3 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) above the 1981 to 2010 average over the central Arctic Ocean and northern Barents Sea, and as much as 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit) above average over the Chukchi Sea. Data recovery program Repeated warm air intrusions occurred over the Chukchi and Barents Seas, continuing the pattern seen in November.

In contrast, central Russia and northern British Columbia experienced temperatures 3 to 5 degrees Celsius (5 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit) below average (Figure 2b). 7 data recovery 94fbr Atmospheric circulation over the Arctic in December was characterized by a broad area of lower-than-average pressure over Greenland and the North Pole, extending across the Arctic Ocean to eastern Siberia, and another region of low pressure over the Ural Mountains. Database languages Higher-than-average pressure dominated Europe and the Gulf of Alaska. Database ranking This set up the very warm southerly winds from both the northern North Atlantic and the Bering Strait areas, pushing Arctic air temperatures to unusually high levels for brief periods in early December and near Christmas. Data recovery youtube December 2016 compared to previous years

Figure 4. 911 database Arctic temperatures at the 925 hPa level (about 2,500 feet above sea level) over the period January to December of 2016 were above average over nearly the entire Arctic region and especially over the Arctic Ocean. Data recovery download By contrast, air temperatures over the Antarctic region for the same period were above average in some areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula and near the pole, but below average in others.

Average annual sea ice extent in both polar regions was low in 2016. Data recovery after factory reset Throughout the year, a wave of new record lows were set for both daily and monthly extent. Database schema design Record low monthly extents were set in the Arctic in January, February, April, May, June, October, and November; and in the Antarctic in November and December.

For the Arctic, the year opened with daily sea ice extent at near record low levels. Database uml Sea ice extent in March tied with 2015 for the lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite period. Data recovery ntfs Ice extent was as much as 500,000 square kilometers (193,000 square miles) below any previous year in the record through most of mid-May to early June. Database error However, the pace of decline returned to near-average rates by July, and the end-of-summer minimum sea ice extent, recorded on September 10, eventually tied for second lowest with 2007 (2012 remains the lowest in the satellite time series by more than 600,000 square kilometers or 232,000 square miles).

That September 2016 did not see a new record low is likely due to the unusually stormy atmospheric pattern that set up over the Arctic Ocean in the summer. Database functions Storm after storm moved into the central Arctic Ocean, including a pair of very deep low pressure systems in late August. Top 10 data recovery While a stormy pattern will tend to chew up the ice cover, it also spreads the ice out to cover a larger area and typically brings cloudy and, in summer, relatively cool conditions, inhibiting melt. Database job titles Sometimes these deep lows act to reduce extent by mixing warm ocean waters upwards, but at present there is no compelling evidence that this occurred in 2016.

In October, a pattern of warm air intrusions from the North Atlantic began. Data recovery linux live cd This pattern combined with unusually high sea surface temperatures over the Barents and Kara Seas and helped to keep Arctic sea ice extent at low levels for November and December. S pombe database In the middle of November there was even a several-day period when Arctic sea ice extent decreased. Database usa Unusually warm conditions and record low daily sea ice extent levels continued through the end of the year. Data recovery pro license key The unusually high sea ice surface temperatures reflect a shift in ocean circulation, enhancing the import of warm, Atlantic-derived waters into the Arctic Ocean.

In the Southern Hemisphere, overall sea ice extent shifted from near-average over the first half of the year to sharply below average in mid-August. Data recovery on android This initiated a period of near-record, and then extreme record low extents that persisted until late in the year. Icare data recovery 94fbr While the Antarctic seasonal sea ice minimum was unremarkable (slightly earlier, and slightly lower, than the 37-year average), the sea ice maximum occurred early (August 31), followed by a period of rapid ice extent decline. Image database By November, extent was more than 2 million square kilometers (772,000 square miles) below the 1981 to 2010 average extent. Database web application In combination with the low Arctic sea ice extent for November, this produced a remarkably low global sea ice total.

The cause of the rapid drop in Antarctic sea ice in the second half of 2016 remains elusive. Database graphic Significant changes in Southern Ocean wind patterns were observed in August, September, and November, but air temperatures and ocean conditions were not highly unusual. In databases a category of data is called a Sea ice cover in Chukchi Sea depends on Bering Strait inflow

Figure 5. Database wordpress This figure shows time series of the Julian dates of seasonal retreat and advance of sea ice in the Chukchi Sea. Note 2 data recovery The trends in retreat and advance (show by the thin solid lines) are related to climate warming. Tally erp 9 data recovery The variations about the trends line are strongly related to variability in the Bering Strait heat inflow.

A recent study by NSIDC scientists Mark Serreze, Julienne Stroeve, and Alexander Crawford, along with University of Washington scientist Rebecca Woodgate, demonstrates strong links between seasonal sea ice retreat and advance in the Chukchi Sea and the inflow of ocean heat into the region through the Bering Strait. Database erd The Chukchi Sea region is important as a focus for resource exploration, and vessels transiting the Arctic Ocean must inevitably pass through it. Database google docs The Chukchi Sea is also part of the seasonal migration route for Bowhead whales that supports subsistence hunting by local indigenous communities.

Serreze and colleagues looked at time series of the date of retreat and advance in which linear trends related to general warming were removed. Database 5500 They found that 68 percent of the variance in the date that ice retreats from the continental shelf break in the Chukchi Sea in spring can be explained by fluctuations in the April through June Bering Strait oceanic heat inflow. Data recovery kit The Bering Strait heat inflow data comes from a mooring located within the strait maintained by the University of Washington. Database meaning They also found that 67 percent of the variance for the date at which ice advances back to the shelf break in autumn and winter can be related to the combined effects of the July through September Bering Strait inflow and the date of ice retreat. Gale database When seasonal ice retreat occurs early, low- albedo open water areas are exposed early, which gain a lot of energy from the sun. Data recovery pc With more heat in the upper ocean, autumn ice growth is delayed. Data recovery easeus These relationships with the Bering Strait inflow and ocean heat uptake are superimposed upon the overall trends due to a warming climate. Top 10 data recovery software While these relationships lay a path forward to improving seasonal predictions of ice conditions in the region, developing an operational prediction scheme would require more timely acquisition of Bering Strait heat inflow data than is presently possible. Database oracle Global sea ice tracking far below average

NSIDC is transitioning the sea ice extent time series graphs to show interquartile and interdecile ranges, with the median extent value, in place of standard deviations and the average values. Data recovery services reviews Standard deviations are most useful with data that are clustered towards the average, or “normally distributed” like a bell curve, with few outliers. Database 12c new features Sea ice extent data, however, has become skewed due to the strong downward trend in ice extent, with a wider spread of values and more values falling at the low end of the range. Database lyrics Interquartile and interdecile ranges, along with the median value, are better for presenting data with these characteristics. Database 360 The interquartile and interdecile ranges more clearly show how the data are distributed and can better distinguish outliers, and so provide a better view of the variability of the data. Database architect salary Further reading

Serreze, M. Database administrator job description C., A. Data recovery app Crawford, J. R database connection C. Database weak entity Stroeve, A. Data recovery vancouver P. Level 3 data recovery Barrett, and R. Database blob A. Database examples Woodgate. Database knowledge 2016. H2 database Variability, trends and predictability of seasonal sea ice retreat and advance in the Chukchi Sea. Nexus 5 data recovery Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JC011977. Data recovery uk Posted in Analysis